CRiceS: Climate relevant interactions and feedbacks: the key role of sea ice and snow in the polar and global climate system. Sea ice is an integral, changing part of the global Earth system. The polar climate system affects lives and livelihoods across the world by regulating climate and weather;
providing ecosystem services; and regulating the ability of humans to operate (hunting, shipping, and resource extraction).CRiceS improves understanding of how rapid sea ice decline is interlinked with physical and chemical changes in the polar oceans and atmosphere. In order to plan for and adapt to polar and global climate change, CRiceS aims to fully understand the causes and consequences of this polar transition. Climate and Earth System Models (ESMs) are the key tools for projecting climate change in order to mitigate the impacts and to adapt. However, these models have major shortcomings in their descriptions of interconnected polar ocean-ice/snow-atmosphere interactions that limit their ability to project teleconnections, feedbacks, and impacts. CRiceS will quantify the controlling chemical, biogeochemical, and physical processes/interactions within the coupled ocean-ice/snow-atmosphere system through comprehensive analysis of new and emerging in-situ and satellite observations. CRiceS improves process, regional, and climate models/ESMs by advancing descriptions of (1) sea ice dynamics/energy exchange, (2) aerosols, clouds and radiation, (3) biogeochemical cycles/greenhouse gas exchanges and (4) fully coupled system behavior. This improved understanding allows for assessment of the role of ocean-ice/snow-atmosphere interactions in polar and global climate and delivers improved quantification of feedback mechanisms and teleconnections within the Earth system. Improved future projections and multi-sectoral impact assessments will increase our capacity to mitigate and adapt to climate and environmental changes in polar regions and beyond. CRiceS brings together 22 leading institutes in Europe and across the globe, including world leading observing and modeling expertise.